Amphibian Kama Sutra

Common toads in amplexus

Common toads (Bufo bufo) spawning

After emerging from hibernation in early spring, toads migrate back to their breeding ponds.

Males fight to secure mates and often outnumber the females at some sites. When this happens the female may be grasped by several males in a position known as ‘amplexus’, as they compete to be in the best position to fertilise her eggs.

Common toads in amplexus

Group of toads in amplexus

Common toads in amplexus

Spawning might look fun but can also be life-threatening!

Common toads in amplexus

Toad sex is apparently a moveable feast!

The common toad is widespread in Surrey, however populations appear to be declining. Where toad migration routes cross busy roads there can be many fatalities, and local conservation groups police ‘Toad Crossings’ at dusk to help them safely across.

Common toad crossing track

This toad was late to the party, but managed to avoid oncoming traffic

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Spring Wood Ant Antics

Wood ant with heather seed

Wood ant (Formica rufa) foraging in early spring

The wood ant mounds among the pine trees were beginning to stir on my visit to the RSPB’s Arne reserve in Dorset recently.

Nests become active in early spring when worker ants begin to forage for food items and building materials to repair damage sustained over the winter months. Badgers, magpies, jays and other animals often raid wood ant nests for food.

Wood ant carrying twig

Wood ants are capable of carrying relatively heavy loads

Wood ant colonies can contain up to half a million individuals. On sunny days worker ants ‘sunbathe’ at the nest entrance to absorb heat and then re-enter the nest to release it – keeping it at a steady temperature. When the nest becomes too warm they open small vents to cool it down.

Wood ants at nest entrance

Sunbathing worker ants at nest entrance

The ants are particularly aggressive in springtime as they re-define their territories. Sometimes ants from weaker neighbouring colonies are recruited by force and carried back to the main colony.

Worker ant carrying another wood ant between nests

This species of wood ant is classified as Near Threatened (NT) in the IUCN Red List and classified in Great Britain as Local. Numbers seem to be increasing in the south of England but it has become locally extinct in parts of its former range in the north and east of England, the Midlands and north Wales.

Photographing ants is always a challenge because they’re small and they move very fast. It’s a good idea to keep your trousers tucked firmly into your socks when lying on the ground this close to a nest full of them! They will bite occasionally but can’t pierce skin. The formic acid they squirt in defence is too weak to harm humans.